Ate – attack Dori – hold, grab, gripGaeshi – turn or reverse (about turn)Gedan – low Geri or keri – kick Gyaku – opposite/reverse Hajime – start Hammi – position where one foot half step in front of other; weight evenHanmi or kamae – posture Hiki – pull Ikkyo – press arm (1st technique)Irimi – enter/enteringKaeshi – counter Katate – one hand (hold on tori)Kokyu – breathKosa – cross handMawashi – sweep (of hand or foot)Nage – throw or throwerNikyo – turn wristOroshi – lead downOshi – push Otoshi – drop Ryo-te – two hand holdSankyo – twist wristShiho – 4 directionsShikko – knee walking Shime or zime – choke or strangleShomen – front/top Soto – outside Suburi – basic weapons practiceTai-sabaki – body movementTaoshi – downTeganatana – edge of the handTenshin / Tenkan – turn, turningTsuki – thrust Uchi – strike ORUchi – inside Ukemi – roll Ushiro – rear / behindYame – stop/endYoko – side Zagi – kneel Zempo /zenpo – forward roll
Aikido Terminology, Language, Words and Names
1st technique (press arm) – IkkyoAttack – ateBody movement – tai-sabaki Breath – kokyu Choke or strangle – shime or zimeCounter – kaeshi cross hand – kosa Down – taoshiDrop – otoshi Edge of hand – teganatana Enter – irimi forward roll – zempoFront – showmenHold, grab – dori Inside – uchi Kick – geri / keriKnee walking – shikko kneel – zagi Lead down – oroshi Low – gedan One hand – katate Opposite / reverse – gyaku Outside – soto Posture – hanmi or kamaePull – hiki Push – oshiRear – ushiroReady pose – hammi (see ‘hammi’)Roll – ukemi Side – yoko Start – hajime Stop/end – yame Strike – uchi Sweeping movement – mawashi Throw/thrower – nage Throw in 4 directions - shihoThrust – tsuki Turn – gaeshi Turn/turning – tenshin Two hand hold – ryote Weapons practice – suburi Wrist turn – nikyo Wrist twist – sankyo
Ki – Energy, intention, force, spirit, life force, life energy or, my favourite, unified physical and mental intention.Teacher is the Sensei. Student is Deshi.Person applying the technique is the Tori (also referred to as the Nage when the tori uses a throwing technique). The Uke is the one who attacks, the one who receives the technique and, usually, gets thrown. Dojo is the place where you train.Kamidana is the shrine symbol (it faces South or East) at the head of the dojo to which you bow (rei); usually from the seiza (kneeling) position (bowing signifies paying respect to god, nature and every person and object around us).A standing bow (rei) towards the Kamidana is made when stepping on or off the mat.Kyu is the ranking system below Black belt then it changes to Dan.Gi – the jacket people wear (often refers to whole suit). The belt is called the obi. Advanced Deshi also wear a Hakama.Jo – the wooden training staveTanto – the wooden knifeBokken– the wooden sword (white oak less likely to shatter than red oak; red oak is heavier, more like weight of sword, but many that are sold as red oak are inferior woods that have been stained. Hickory and ash are softer but this can be good from a safety point of view as they dent rather than shatter or splinter. More at: www.aikiweb.com/weapons/goedkoop1.html
Note:Underlined words are those mentioned in the basic techniques (up to and including Green belt)
Ashi – leg/foot/ankle Chudan – middle (trunk) of bodyGedan – lower area of bodyHanmi or kamae – posture Hiji – elbow Jodan – upper part of body (^ neck)Kata – shoulder Katate – one handKoti or tekubi – wrist Kote – forearm, wrist Kokyu – breathKoshi – hip Kubi – neck Mae – forward Men – face or headMune – body / chestShomen – front/top Soto – outside Tai-sabaki – body movementTe – hand Teganatana – edge of the handUde – arm
Arm – ude Body – mune Body movement – tai-sabaki Breath – kokyu Edge of hand – teganatana Elbow – hiji Face or head – men Foot/leg/ankle – ashi Forearm – kote Foreward – mae Front – showmenHand – te Hip – koshi Lower area of body – gedan Middle area of body – chudan Neck – kubi One hand – katate Outside – soto Posture – hanmi or kamaeShoulder – kata Upper part of body (^ neck) – Jodan Wrist – koti or tekubi
As in English, there are different words for different contexts. Eg ‘front’ can be ‘shomen’, ‘mae’ or ‘omote’. ‘Shomen’ can be used to mean ‘front’ or ‘top’ or ‘the front of the dojo.
Compound Words / Moves
Words can be combined (often written without hyphens –added here for clarity). For example:Shomen-ateFront attackShomen-uchiStrike to top of headYokomen-uchiStrike to side of the headMae ukemiFront (forward) rollUshiro ukemiRear roll (or break-fall)Katate-dorione hand grab (Uke’s right to Tori’s left ie hands not crossed across body)Katate kosa-doriCross hand grab (prefer gyaku te-dori but not used here)Ryo-te-doriTwo hand hold, one on each wristRyo-te-mochiTwo hand hold, both Uke’s hands hold Tori’s one handKatate-dori ryo-te-mochiUke holds Tori’s wrist with both handsZempo-nageThrow where Uke rolls out forward
Counting to Ten
1ichiitch2ninee3sansaan4shishee5gogoh6rokulok 7shichisheech8hachihaach9kyu or kucoo (kyoo)10jyu or jujooEleven in Japanese is translated as “10 plus 1″, as ‘jyu ichi’, 12 as jyu ni, etc. Twenty is two tens, ie Ni jyu, 21 = ni jyu ichi, 22 = ni jyu ni, etc. 100 = hyaku.